1. Physics of Living Systems
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生物物理:细菌集合的共同概念

  1. Hannah Jeckel
  2. Noémie Matthey
  3. 克努特德雷舍 是通讯作者
  1. Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology,德国
  2. 马尔堡菲利普大学德国
  3. 瑞士联邦理工学院洛桑,Switzerland
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Cite本文AS:188bet体育电竞Elife 2019;8:E47019 DOI:10.7554/188bet体育电竞ELIFE.47019

Abstract

The expansion of bacterial swarms and the spreading of biofilms can be described by a unified biophysical theory that involves both active and passive processes.

Main text

微生物学中一个长期持有的范例是细菌是单细胞生物,and that the effect of a large population of bacteria is the sum of the effects of all the individual cells.However,在过去的几十年中,这种细菌生活的观点已经发生了根本性的改变。(Parsek and Greenberg,2005),and it is now clear that bacteria can communicate with each other via small molecules and coordinate their behavior.Bacteria can,例如,形成蜂群,当它们穿过表面去探索周围环境和寻找营养物质时,它们也可以成长为多细胞结构的生物膜群落,为细胞提供各种好处,比如提高了对抗生素的耐受性。目前,对仅发生在细菌细胞群中的行为的研究是微生物学研究中一个令人兴奋的前沿领域。It has also caught the attention of physicists and mathematicians who are interested in identifying the quantitative principles that underpin multicellular organization.

细菌群和生物膜通常被视为两种根本不同的表型,因为它们受不同的基因调控,are caused by different cellular processes,and display obvious differences at the microscopic scale: swarms involve highly motile cells that move collectively (Darnton et al.,2010卡恩斯2010Zhang et al .,2010),而生物膜主要由细胞外基质结合在一起的非运动细胞组成。(弗莱明等,二千零一十六).However,在更宏观的描述层面上,there are also some similarities: swarms and biofilms both involve the spreading of bacterial communities with low height-to-width ratios over an agar substrate,两者都由多个不同的成分组成(细胞,基质和流体)。

Biofilms and swarms are similar in many ways.

Illustration showing a biofilm (right) made of bacteria (green shapes) and extracellular matrix (gray) looking at itself in a mirror and seeing a swarm of bacteria,不同的颜色表示在同一方向上移动的单元格组。Srinivasan等人have shown that the spreading dynamics of swarms and biofilms at the macroscopic level can be described by a single biophysical theory.Illustration by Noémie Matthey.

现在,in188bet体育电竞,受这些相似性的启发,斯里尼瓦桑,哈佛大学的Nadir Kaplan和L Mahadevan报告说,他们已经发展出一种统一的理论,可以描述蜂群和生物膜的扩张。(Srinivasan等人,二千零一十九).斯里尼瓦桑et al.认识到这两个系统的传播可以被视为只涉及物质的两个阶段:一个活跃的,growing phase of bacteria and/or matrix components,and a passive phase of fluid which can move from the substrate to the system and back.Based on this insight,斯里尼瓦桑et al.建立了一个包含生长效应的一般耦合方程组的两相模型,流体通量营养和扩散,with the specific components of the equations being adapted for swarms and biofilms.他们发现尽管蜂群和生物膜之间存在差异,他们的模型可以定量地预测他们如何扩展的动力学。

该模型忽略了诸如基因调控和细胞-细胞相互作用的实际机制等生物学细节。相反,它只依赖于生长和物理效应。这一理论定量复制细菌传播动力学的一个显著结论是,在宏观尺度上,两个阶段与琼脂基质之间的物理相互作用以及细胞生长是菌落扩展的驱动因素。

同样地,对蜂群和生物膜的微观动力学的研究已经确定了细胞间相互作用的统一概念:物理相互作用(如细胞间的碰撞)决定了生物膜的结构和蜂群的集体运动。(Hartmann et al.,二千零一十九Jekelet等人,二千零一十九Trejo et al.,二千零一十三温斯克等人,二千零一十二).这表明,虽然生物学机制决定了细胞的生理状态和它们所建立的群落的类型,物理相互作用可以在一定条件下,从微观和宏观上预测该群落的结构和群落内细胞的动态。

Taken together with previous work on the similarities between swarms and biofilms at microscopic length scales (Hartmann et al.,二千零一十九Jekelet等人,二千零一十九),the results of Srinivasanet al.这是在努力确定能够解释细菌群落在不同长度尺度和不同物种间行为的一般原则方面迈出的又一步。

References

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文章和作者信息

作者详情

  1. Hannah Jeckel

    Hannah Jeckel在马克斯普朗克地球微生物研究所,and the Department of Physics,马尔堡菲利普大学Marburg,德国

    竞争性利益
    No competing interests declared
    奥西德图标 "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:"0000-0002-7080-4907号
  2. Noémie Matthey

    Noémie Mattheyis in the School of Life Sciences,瑞士联邦理工学院洛桑,Lausanne,Switzerland

    竞争性利益
    No competing interests declared
    奥西德图标 "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:"0000-0002-6056-2756号
  3. 克努特德雷舍

    克努特德雷舍在马克斯普朗克地球微生物研究所,and the Department of Physics,马尔堡菲利普大学Marburg,德国

    用于通信
    邮箱:k.drescher@mpi-marburg.mpg.de
    竞争性利益
    No competing interests declared
    奥西德图标 "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:"0000-0002-7340-2444

出版历史

  1. 发布的记录版本:April 30,2019(第1版)

Copyright

© 2019,Jeckel et al.

这篇文章是根据Creative Commons Attribution License,允许不受限制的使用和再分配,只要原始作者和来源是可信的。

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